Health Fitness Book

off Bruised sternum

admin to Health and Fitness  

Should you be suffering from a painful sternum injury, odds are good that you’ve just had an accident or contusion that was strong enough to bruise the bone of the same name.

One’s ribcage is actually connected into the sternum, which is also joined by cartilage and helps stabilize the ribs. This caged bone mass is essential to blocking the chest cavity, which might otherwise be exposed to constant danger due to collisions. Considering that your chest contains your heart and lungs, this would be very bad. Without the sternum any impact would likely be fatal to humans, so a bruised bone is not a bad trade off.

What could cause a sternum to be bruised? Car accidents or sports injuries are common causes, which may result if an impact hits the person where they aren’t wearing protective shields. Varying by how bad the injury is, a bruise here may cause some considerable pain. The sternum and the ribs act together to lessen the force of a blow towards the chest. If the injury is rough enough, it may even cause the victim to start coughing loudly.

This outlays some of the common causes for sternum bruises. Now, lets look at some side effects that might be seen associated with this injury class.

  • Bruises
  • Pain caused by movement
  • Swells
  • Tender skin
  • Painful to cough or laugh
  • Chest pain that lasts for weeks
  • Breathing causes pain

Some may try to take small breaths to ease their pain. This is a serious health condition that shouldn’t be ignored. It might lead to breathing difficulties or infection. Speak with a physician soon, and have a diagnosis on whether the sternum has been broken or not.

Treatment for Bruised Sternum

Realize that it may take four to six weeks for sternum bruising to completely heal up. You may have some difficulty taking in breaths during this time, and you may feel chest pains. Persistent pain will be a sign that you should speak with your physician. For inflammation and painful issues, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) pills and opioid drugs can be prescribed to restore health. There are other drugs to ease painful sensations, including ketoprofen, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen and naproxen.-

The medical condition of having an excessive amount of protein in ones urine is diagnosed as either proteinuria or albuminuria. The term albuminuria is named after the main protein that is found within urine, albumin. The central system responsible for cleansing the various organs of the body are the kidneys. The kidneys are responsible for purging the body of waste, as well as removing chemicals from the blood that are not required to be retained.

Although the presence of a slight amount of protein within in the urine is not cause for concern, it is possible for a variety of medical conditions to negatively affect the kidneys ability to properly filter resulting in proteinuria. Normally protein molecules are too large in size to successfully pass through the glomeruli (singular glomerulus) within the kidneys. So, an extended case of proteinuria may possibly indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly as a filtering system.

Orthostatic proteinuria, transient or intermittent proteinuria and persistent proteinuria, are the three main types of proteinuria.

Orthostatic Proteinuria: Most commonly found among young adults, and adolescents who are tall and thin in stature. For this condition, higher volumes of protein are excreted into the urine when the individual is standing.

Transient (Intermittent) Proteinuria: This type of proteinuria occurs when there is a short-term rise in the protein level found within the urine, and is typically not caused by any underlying kidney condition. Typically this type of proteinuria resolves itself without any type of medical assistance, and is most commonly benign.

Persistent Proteinuria: This type of proteinuria is an indicator for certain underlying medical ailments. The most common causes are diseases of the heart, kidney, or blood vessels.

Symptoms of Proteinuria

It is possible for proteinuria to not produce any discernible symptoms, most typically when it is still within the early stages. As the protein levels become increasingly higher, it is common for the individual to experience several possible symptoms.

•  swelling of the arms, face, abdomen, ankles, hands and the feet
•  loss of appetite
• foamy or bubbly urine
• poor concentration
•  nausea and tiredness
•  weight gain (in large part due to fluid retention)• back pain

The urine may appear bubbly or foamy as the high levels of protein within the urine react with air. Weight gain as well as fluid retention of various body parts are the result of ‘edema’ more commonly known as fluid retention, a condition in which an excess of fluid is retained within the body tissues. When there is a large amount of protein present, albumin is filtered out of the body, when this occurs fluid escapes from the circulatory system and accumulates within the tissues.

Treatments for Proteinuria

Infections are the typical cause for a high level of protein in the urine, if a physician discovers an infection is the cause, a course of antibiotics are prescribed. In the case that an infection is not found, further testing is required to discover the underlying issue, such as blood testing and kidney function testing. In these cases the treatment would depend on what the further diagnostic tests reveal. For example, in the case that the individual’s proteinuria is caused by diabetes, your physician would prescribe the appropriate medication to help control your blood sugar levels. Lifestyle and diet changes may also be necessary to aid in the managing of this disease and its associated complications.

off Hematoma after surgery

admin to Health and Fitness  

Hematoma following a surgery, also called postoperative hematoma is a localized gathering of blood at the site of the surgery. Hematoma is essentially a pool of blood under the skin in an organ or tissues of the body.

Hematoma is a complication that can often occur after surgery, and is most common after a face lift. When veins, capillaries or arteries burst, blood oozes from the vessels and collects in the tissues surrounding it, which results in a pool of blood. A clot may form, which can harden and form lumps. The lumps are sacs of blood that prevent the bleeding from spreading and keep blood flow to a minimum.

Hematoma can develop hours or even days after a surgery, because of the damage that surrounds the blood vessels during an operation, or because of poor patient aftercare. Some cases in which hematoma occurs include an episiotomy, which is a vaginal incision that occurs during the delivery of a child, a caesarean, gallbladder removal, abdominoplasty (which tightens stomach skin), facelift, dental surgery or a breast augmentation.

Post-Surgery Hematoma Treatments

Heat and Cold Treatment: Mild cases of hematoma are often reabsorbed, and additional surgery is not needed. Hot and cold treatments can effectively treat mild hematoma. Ice or cold packs are utilized for vasoconstriction, as this lowers blood flow and makes the vessels constrict. Applying an ice pack reduces and alleviates bleeding and swelling. The ice packs should be applied for two days, or until the swelling is gone.

A hot towel treatment is done next, in which a warm towel is placed on the hematoma site. Heat accelerates the healing process by causing the clot to reabsorb and stopping internal bleeding. This should be followed with an ice pack, and the heat and cold packs should be alternated until all inflammation and discoloration is gone. Topical analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications can also reduce pain and swelling. Massaging is also beneficial.

Drainage Method: Sometimes, hematoma won’t go away with heat and cold treatments alone. When this is the case, a physician will surgically remove the blood. A sterile needle is used to drain the blood from the body, which is a process called aspiration. Hyaluronidase, which is an enzyme, is sometime injected into the body to accelerate blood re-absorption.

Surgical Method: Severe hematoma cases require surgical attention, as they cause infection and tissue scarring if left untreated. An additional operation will be scheduled by the physician for hematoma removal. The wound is re-opened during the surgery, and the clot is removed by way of saline irrigation. The doctor will identify the blood vessel causing hematoma and the vessel will be clamped. The wound is stitched up again. The patient will have to be extremely careful post-surgery to prevent hematoma from occurring again.

off Excretory system facts

admin to Health and Fitness  

The passive biological system which regulates the internal environment of an organism is called the excretory system. This system helps to prevent damage from occurring by removing unneeded and excess waste materials from the organism. Removing the waste products that are created through metabolism is the responsibility of the excretory system. It eliminates waste products along with gaseous waste and other liquids.

Some facts regarding the excretory system will be outlined in a moment. First let’s look at the urinary system and how it functions in the body. As mentioned previously, everything that we consume is not always used by the body. A majority of the liquids and foods we eat will be filtered from our blood in the form of urine. We could become extremely ill if our blood were to not filter these waste products out. It’s the kidneys which ensure that our blood remains at the perfect consistency, being neither too thick nor too thin.

The kidneys also make sure that our blood is not overloaded with minerals, vitamins, or excess waste material. The kidneys work to filter our blood over and over through its millions of tiny filters. Blood is passed through these filters on a continual basis allowing the kidneys to filter around 180 liters of blood. The processes of secretion, re-absorption, and filtration are how the kidneys are able to eliminate these non-essential materials in our body. Waste is collected at the center of the kidneys then it travels down to the ureters and is passed to the bladder. That waste will be held in the bladder for a short period until it is ready for elimination from the body.

Facts about the Human Excretory System

We have taken a look at the important organs which aid our excretory system in the processes of filtering and digesting out food. Now let’s look at some of the amazing facts regarding the excretory system.

  • Your kidneys do more than just remove the garbage from your body. They also work towards balancing the amount of vitamins, minerals, fat, and protein that are found in the blood. It does this so that our body can easily perform its day to day tasks.
  • The excretory and digestive systems are connected so as to provide a route for these chemicals to be released. All these chemicals are not needed by the body. The right and left kidneys are assisted by a number of organs in the body which help in disposing waste products.
  • Each day our body eliminates around 1.5 quarts of urine. All of the liquids, minerals, and vitamins that are of no use to the body are contained in the urine.
  • The bladder of a human being is nearly the same size as the average human brain.
  • In one individuals life span the liver can produce nearly 6,500 ounces of bile.
  • In our life time an individual could urinate close to 7,850,000,000,000 gallons of fluid.
  • There are two kidneys in the human body. The left kidney is always found higher than the right kidney.
  • A really extraordinary fact regarding the excretory system is that up to 400 ml of urine can be held in a human bladder.
  • Also considered part of the excretory system is our skin. This is because the skin eliminates waste through sweat along with various toxins.
  • Urine contains a high amount of urea which can be used by plants as a source of nitrogen. Because of this, diluted urine can be used in gardens and potted plants.